Glyphosate Mineralization: Effect of Temperature and Soybean and Corn Crop Residues
|Ariel Rampoldi1*, Susana Hang1, Enrique Barriuso2|
Mineralization is the main mechanism of dissipation of glyphosate herbicide (N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine) in soil. However, there is scarce information about the mineralization process in strata formed by stubbles in no-tillage systems. The kinetics and rate of mineralization of herbicide in stubbles of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated. To evaluate the effect of age of crop residues, samples of soybean stubbles were collected immediately after harvest (Soja 1) and four months after harvest (Soja 2). Corn crop residues were collected three months after harvest. Glyphosate evolution and total microbial activity (TMA) were monitored by release of 14C-CO2 and C-CO2 under laboratory conditions with two temperatures, 15 and 28 ºC. Crop residues size was evaluated using grinding (1 mm) and cut (1 to 2 cm) stubbles. Results showed that glyphosate mineralization was affected by the incubation temperature and the origin and age of crop residues. Size of crop residues did not modify glyphosate mineralization. Average glyphosate mineralization after 56 days of incubation at 15 and 28 ºC was of 3.9 and 9.9%, respectively, of the 14C-glyphosate initially applied. In maize crop residues the percentages were 2.0 and 3.0%, respectively, at 15 and 28 ºC. A similar evolution was detected for TMA. The co-metabolic nature of glyphosate mineralization was corroborated. An inverse relation between C/N ratio and glyphosate mineralization was detected. Higher glyphosate mineralization was detected in fresh soybean stubbles, suggesting that applications on aged crop residues could increase the persistence of glyphosate in no-tillage systems.
|Keywords: glyphosate, stubbles, mineralization, non-tillage system, total microbial activity.|
|1 Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, CC 509, Av. Valparaíso s/n, (5000) Córdoba, Argentina. E-mail: email@example.com *Corresponding author.|
2 Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique-AgroParisTech - Unité Mixte de Recherche Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon, France. Courriel: firstname.lastname@example.org