Topoclimatic Modeling of Thermopluviometric Variables for the Bí|o Bí|o and La Araucaní|a Regions, Chile.

Diego Díaz M.1*, Luís Morales S.2, Giorgio Castellaro G.2, and Fernando Neira R.2

Climatic mapping in the Bío Bío and La Araucanía Regions of Chile is primarily in analog form (paper) and delineation of contours, making it unsuitable for digital handling by geographic information systems (GIS). Therefore, in this study, topoclimatic models were created and spatially represented to explain the spatial and temporal variation of monthly mean temperature and precipitation, as a function of variability and singularity of the physiographic characteristics of the Bío Bío and La Araucanía Regions. The physiographic factors considered were latitude, longitude, altitude, aspect and distance to coastline. To elaborate equations, data from thermopluviometric stations of the study area were compiled and systematized. These stations were standardized to a common reference system in order to locate them in space and obtain the value of physiographic factors for each station. With this information, the equations were calculated using a stepwise (backward) regression procedure, with a statistical significance of 95%. The regression equations obtained for mean monthly and annual temperature and precipitation were all significant (P ≤ 0.05) and had R2 > 0.7. These equations were applied to the rest of the study area in raster format using a GIS, which yields a spatially continuous cartography. The spatial resolution or pixel size was 90 m, which allows carrying out research at a 1:100000 scale, commonly used at the regional or provincial level.

Keywords: topoclimatic models, mean temperature, mean precipitation, pluviometric cartographic, GIS.
1Centro Nacional del Medio Ambiente – CENMA, Laboratorio de Modelación e Inventario de Emisiones, Casilla 7880096, Santiago, Chile. *Corresponding author (ddiaz@cenma.cl).
2Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile.