Insecticidal effect of fruit extracts from Xylopia aethiopica and Dennettia tripetala (Annonaceae) against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Donald A. Ukeh1*, Ene E. Oku2, Idorenyin A. Udo1, Abo I. Nta2, and Jude A. Ukeh3

The insecticidal and repellent activities of fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. and Dennettia tripetala (Baker f.) G.E. Schatz belonging to the family Annonaceae was studied against Sitophilus oryzae (L.), an economic, primary post-harvest pest of rice, and other cereal products. Infested rice grains (100 g) treated with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% (w/w) powders of both plants were evaluated for toxicity against S. oryzae every 24 h for 3 d, and during F1 progeny emergence. The essential oils of both plants were also applied at 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg cm-2 filter paper in Petri dishes for toxicity bioassays at 24 h exposure. Repellence bioassay with 10 μL solution of essential oils on filter paper was performed in a Y-Tube airflow olfactometer. Results indicate that powders of both plants significantly (P < 0.001) caused adult weevil mortality and a reduction in F1 progeny emergence than the control. Essential oils were also significantly (P < 0.001) adulticidal to S. oryzae after 24 h with the highest dose (2 mg cm-2) producing 100% mortality respectively. Similarly, both male and female weevils significantly avoided the test arm compared to the control arm in the Y-Tube olfactometer repellence tests. These results suggest that X. aethiopica and D. tripetala natural extracts have potential for use as part of integrated pest management of stored product protection against S. oryzae.

Keywords: Essential oils, powders, repellence, toxicity, Y-Tube olfactometer.
1University of Calabar, Department of Crop Science, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria. *Corresponding author (donald.ukeh@yahoo.co.uk). 2University of Calabar, Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, PMB 1115, Calabar, Nigeria.
3University of Nigeria, Department of Botany, Nsukka, Nigeria.