Residual effect of pesticides used in the integrated apple production on Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae
|Alexandre F. Moura1*, Geraldo Carvalho2, Marcos Botton3|
Temperate fruit crops are an important economic activity for growers in southern Brazil. However, several pest species are associated to apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) crops in Brazil. Pesticides are largely used to control them and one way to change this is to combine selective pesticides and predator insects. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effects of the abamectin, carbaryl, fenitrothion, methidathion, sulfur, and trichlorfon pesticides on the survival and stage length of larvae and pupae, adult oviposition from treated larvae, and hatched eggs of two Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) populations. The compounds were sprayed on glass plates in accordance with the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) recommendations. First- and second-instar larvae were exposed to pesticide residues. Carbaryl, fenitrothion, and methidathion caused 100% mortality of first- and second-instar larvae. Changes in the number of eggs laid by females from first- and second-instar larvae exposed to residues of abamectin and sulfur, or abamectin, sulfur, and trichlorfon, respectively, were not observed. Only abamectin reduced the number of hatched eggs laid by females in Bento Gonçalves from treated first-instar larvae. Sulfur reduced the viability of C. externa eggs in Bento Gonçalves and Vacaria females from treated second-instar larvae, whereas trichlorfon and abamectin reduced the viability of eggs in Vacaria females. In conclusion, carbaryl, fenitrothion and methidathion were harmful to C. externa. Trichlorfon was harmful to first-instar larvae and slightly harmful to second-instar larvae. Abamectin and sulfur were slightly harmful to first-instar larvae and harmless to second-instar larvae.
|Keywords: Green lacewings, insecticides, natural enemies, pest control, side effects.|
|1Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Embrapa Vegetables, 70359-970, P.O. Box 218, Brasília, DF, Brazil. *Corresponding author (firstname.lastname@example.org). |
2Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamentode Entomologia, 37200-000, P.O. Box 3037, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil (email@example.com).
3Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA), Embrapa Grape & Wine, 95700-000, P.O. Box 130, Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (firstname.lastname@example.org).