Repellency, toxicity andovipositioninhibition of vegetable extracts against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
|Edgar Eduardo Mendoza-Garcia, Laura Delia Ortega-Arenas, Rafael Perez-Pacheco, Cesareo Rodriguez-Hernandez,|
|In a search for sustainable options of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) management, the toxic and/or repellent potential of water, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae), Comocladia engleriana Loes (Anacardiaceae), Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae), Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae), and Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. aggr.* (Asteraceae) were evaluated. Repellency was assessed by the cylinder method (olfactometer), while toxicity and oviposition inhibition were assessed by the leaf immersion method. Acetonic extracts did not cause any repellent or insecticidal effect. In contrast, 200 mg mL-1 water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and ethanolicextract of A. artemisiifolia had the highest repellent activity (76%, 72%, and 69%, respectively) although their activity decreased gradually over time. Ethanolic extracts of P. auritum (66%) and R. raphanistrum (56%) at 200 mg mL-1 were highlighted as being toxic, while the most effective in inhibiting oviposition were water extracts of R. raphanistrum (76.1%) and P. auritum (72.0%) and ethanolic extract of P. auritum (69.5%); however, concentrations lower than 60 mg mL-1 caused oviposition stimulation. Our results suggest that water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and P. auritum represent a useful tool in integrated whiteflymanagement.|
|Keywords: Botanical insecticides, IPM, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.|
|1Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, km 36.5 Carr. México-Texcoco, C.P. 56230, Montecillo, México. *Corresponding author (email@example.com).|
2Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional-Unidad Oaxaca, Calle Hornos 1003, Col. Indeco Xoxocotlán C.P. 71230, Oaxaca, México.