Indications that some nutritional elements can improve the gladiolus corm and cormels qualities in Mexico

Enrique Gonzalez-Perez1*, Oscar Javier Ayala-Garay2, Maria de Jesus Yanez-Morales3
In regions of of the State of Puebla (Mexico), gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus Andrews) production has had asexual propagation problems, which have caused losses for producers, who mostly produce their own vegetative seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical qualities and health characteristics of corms and cormels generated at four fertilization rates (FD, kg ha-1): 65N-14.9P-171K-16.6Mg-31.2Ca-0.0B-0.0S (FD1); 40.5N-24P-171K-23Mg-37.2Ca-0.2B-8.5S (FD2); 81N-24P-171K-23Mg-37.2Ca-0.2B-0.0S (FD3); and 81N-24P-171K-23Mg-37.2Ca-0.0B-0.0S (FD-R; traditional regional rate). Two hundred and forty corms, along with their cormels, of two varieties (‘Borrega Roja’ and ‘Espuma’) produced at four FDs were harvested. The following physical qualities of corms were assessed; corm fresh weight (CFW), number of cormels generated (NcMC), and total fresh weight (TFW); evaluated physical qualities of cormels were size (mm) and total weight. Cormel health was analyzed in 160 randomly disinfested pieces that were plated in agar medium with or without splitting. The percentage of identified fungus incidence was recorded. Data were analyzed by a non-parametric one-way ANOVA. No significant differences were shown for CFW. The best treatments were mainly FD2 followed by FD1. In relation to FD-R, FD2 in both varieties increased NcMC by 31% to 69%, TFW by 27% to 46%, 6-8 size by 24% to 27%, and the development of Fusarium oxysporum colonies was reduced by 100% in cormel internal tissue.
Keywords: Gladiolus grandiflorus, macronutrients, micronutrients, ornamental, vegetative seed.
1Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias, Campo Experimental Bajío, km 6,5 Carretera Celaya-San Miguel de Allende, Celaya, Guanajuato. 38110. Guanajuato, México. *Corresponding author (gonzalez.enrique@inifap.gob.mx; yanezmj@colpos.mx).
2Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, km 36,5 Carr. México-Texcoco. C.P. 56230 Montecillo, Texcoco, México.