Plant respiration under low oxygen

Guillermo Toro1*, and Manuel Pinto2
Respiration is an oxidative process controlled by three pathways: Glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Respiratory metabolism is ubiquitous in all organisms, but with differences among each other. For example in plants, because their high plasticity, respiration involves metabolic pathways with unique characteristics. In this way, in order to avoid states of low energy availability, plants exhibit great flexibility to bypass conventional steps of glycolysis, TCA cycle, and OXPHOS. To understand the energetic link between these alternative pathways, it is important to know the growth, maintenance, and ion uptake components of the respiration in plants. Changes in these components have been reported when plants are subjected to stress, such as oxygen deficiency. This review analyzes the current knowledge on the metabolic and functional aspects of plant respiration, its components and its response to environmental changes.
Keywords: Electron transport chain, hypoxia, Krebs cycle, maintenance respiration.
1Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF), Camino Las Parcelas 812, sector Los Choapinos, Rengo, Chile. *Corresponding author (guillermotoro@gmail.com).
2Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA La Platina, Santa Rosa 11610, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile.