ABSTRACT.
Genetic diversity, identification, and certification of Chilean rice varieties using molecular markers

Viviana Becerra1*, Mario Paredes1, Eduardo Gutiérrez1, and Carmen Rojo1
 
It takes approximately 14 yr to produce a new rice (Oryza sativa L.) variety, that is, from initial hybridization to its commercial release. Currently, new varieties are identified based on morphological descriptors, which have been efficient over time. However, due to the main constraints on seed type impose to other breeding objectives and the pressure of continuous release of varieties, high degree of parentage, and genetic and morphological uniformity has been observed in the breeding populations. The objectives of this study were: to determine the genetic variability of Chilean and foreign commercial rice varieties, and determine, identify, and certify the genetic relationships among varieties, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 16 commercial varieties, some of them closely related, were included in the study, which were genetically analyzed using 54 microsatellites. The 54 microsatellite loci allowed the discrimination among the 16 varieties. The number of alleles ranged between 2 and 8 with a mean of 3.54 alleles per locus, while the polymorphism information content (PIC) presented a mean of 0.44. The genetic distance and diversity parameters between pairs of varieties indicate a limited diversity among these genotypes. The cluster analysis indicated that varieties were grouped according to their grain type and pedigree. Results demonstrate that the identification and certification of varieties using microsatellite markers could be a good complement to existing agro-morphological data when varieties are closed related.
Keywords: Genetic diversity, Oryza sativa, SSR, variety certification and identification.
1Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA Quilamapu, Av. Vicente Méndez 515, Chillán, Chile. *Corresponding author (vbecerra@inia.cl).