Cadmium phytoextraction capacity of white lupine (Lupineus albus L.) and narrow-leafed lupine (Lupineus angustifolius L.) in three contrasting agroclimatic conditions of Chile

Nallely Trejo1, Iván Matus2, Alejandro del Pozo1, Ingrid Walter3, Juan Hirzel2*
The phytoextraction process implies the use of plants to promote the elimination of metal contaminants in the soil. In fact, metal-accumulating plants are planted or transplanted in metal-contaminated soil and cultivated in accordance with established agricultural practices. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the productivity and Cd phytoextraction capacity of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and narrow-leafed lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.), as well as the effect on residual Cd concentration in the soil. Both species of lupines were grown at three CdCl2 rates (0, 1, and 2 mg kg-1), under three agroclimatic conditions in Chile in 2013. In the arid zone (Pan de Azúcar, 73 mm precipitation), narrow-leafed lupine production was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than white lupine (4.55 vs. 3.26 Mg DM ha-1, respectively). In locations with higher precipitation (Santa Rosa, 670 mm; Carillanca, 880 mm), narrow-leafed lupine DM production was slightly higher than in Pan de Azúcar, but white lupine was approximately three times higher. Total plant Cd concentrations in white and narrow-leafed lupine increased as Cd rates increased in the three environments, but they were much higher in narrow-leafed lupine than white lupine; 150%, 58%, and 344% higher in Pan de Azúcar, Santa Rosa, and Carillanca, respectively. Cadmium uptake (g Cd ha-1) and apparent recovery were also higher (P < 0.05) in narrow-leafed lupine in two environments (Pan de Azúcar and Carillanca). These results suggest that narrow-leafed lupine present higher potential as phytoremediation species than white lupine.
Keywords: Cd recovery, Cd retention, Cd uptake, legumes, phytostabilization, soil properties.
1Universidad de Talca, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Avenida Lircay S/N, Talca, Chile.
2Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, INIA Quilamapu. Avenida Vicente Méndez 515, Chillán, Chile.
*Corresponding author (jhirzel@inia.cl).
3Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, INIA, Apdo. Correos 8111, 28080 Madrid, España.