Environmental effect on genetic gains and its impact on bread-making quality traits in Brazilian spring wheat

Elesandro Bornhofen1, Giovani Benin1*, Lindolfo Storck1, Volmir S. Marchioro2, Cátia Meneguzzi1, Anderson S. Milioli1, and Diego M. Trevizan1
In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) several studies have reported genetic gain for grain yield over the years. However, studies on wheat bread-making quality are scarce. Our objective was to estimate the progress due to genetic and environmental components in wheat bread-making quality parameters. In addition, we aimed to examine trends in historical cultivars and associate traits performance with geographical parameters. We used data from multi-environment trials (MET) represented by eight years (2005-2012) and 458 genotypes, including lines and commercial cultivars (controls). We determined the genetic progress by the contrasts between genotypes assessed in each biennium, excluding the year effect. This effect is previously estimated by existing variation among common genotypes. Genotype replacement rate was 52% and reflects the dynamism of the breeding program to develop better genotypes in terms of bread-making quality. The genetic progress estimated for gluten strength (W) was 1.30% yr-1. The progress in W demonstrated to be partly counterbalanced by the environmental effect (-0.78% yr-1). We observed disequilibrium tendency in relationship between tenacity and extensibility (P/L ratio) as a consequence of searching for lines with high W. Analysis showed that P/L ratio can be reduced in responses to the increase in latitude of the location. Environmental and genetic effects on the traits variation were discussed.
Keywords: Breeding contribution, genetic gain, gluten strength, old and modern cultivars, P/L ratio, Triticum aestivum.
1Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, 85503-390, Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. *Corresponding author (benin@utfpr.edu.br).
2Cooperativa Central Agropecuária de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico e Económico, BR 467, 85813-450 Cascavel, Paraná, Brasil.