Determining kinship pattern of robusta and arabica coffee clones using multivariate analysis

Rubiyo Rubiyo1, Sudarsono Sudarsono2, Muhammad Fuad Anshori3*, Nicho Nurdebyandaru4, Yovita Anggita Dewi1, and Miftahur Rizqi Akbar5
Identification of kinship in various coffees in the Indonesian Industrial & Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) is essential for the coffee breeding process in the future.The kinship analysis can be done by using multivariate analysis.This study aimed to identify the kinship pattern and specific morphological characteristics of the coffee clone collections by using multivariate analysis.The experiment was carried out through the observational method corrected with analysis of covariance. The plant materials used were five genotypes of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner) and three arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genotypes. Robusta genotypes studied were BP308, BP436, BP42, SA237, and SA 237; and arabica genotypes were S 795, Kartika 1, and Kartika 2. The study used an IPGRI (International PlantGenetic Resources Institute) list descriptor modified for coffee plants characterization. The morphological characters consisted of 46 characters. The results showed that coffee clones in the IIBCRI had relatively high diversity in clone grouping, both between types and between clones within the species.The grouping results showed that subgroup 1 of the robusta coffee consisted of BP 308, SA237, and SA203 coffee clones. Conversely, subgroups 2 of the robusta coffee consisted of BP 436 and BP 42. As for arabica coffee, subgroup 1 consisted of Kartika 1 and Kartika 2 clones, while theS795 clone has grouped solely in subgroup 2. Based on this study, the IIBCRI was also considered suitable for selectingand identifying morphological lines of coffee, particularly robusta coffee.
Keywords: Coffea spp., dendrogram analysis, principal component, principal coordinates.
1Indonesian Center for Agricultural Technology Assessment and Development, 16114, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia.2IPB University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, 16680, Bogor, Indonesia.3Hasanuddin University, Agronomy Department, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia. *Corresponding author (fuad.anshori@unhas.ac.id).4Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resources Research and Development, 16114, Bogor, Indonesia.5Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, 68118, Jember, Indonesia.