Characterization of Chilean soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Def.) cultivars based on gliadin electrophoretic profiles

Patricio Hinrichsen R.1, Ximena Opitz B., Ignacio Ramírez A. y Carlos Muñoz S.

It has been established A methodology for the varietal identification of bread and durum wheat has been established based on the electrophoretic pattern of the ethanol-extracted seed proteins, corresponding mainly to gliadins from the gluten. The gliadins were resolved in a 10% acid polyacrylamide (PAA) gel (A-PAGE, pH 3.1), preceded by a stacking gel at 4.5% in PAA. The electrophoretic patterns were reproducible among individual grains. Based on the comparison to a well-characterized variety (Marquis), the gliadin groups were separated and identified. Considering the 47 analyzed varieties, only a few showed the same protein pattern. In spite of these Iimitations, but considering its simplicity, this methodology is recommend as the way to differentiate wheat varieties, as well as to determine the uniformity in commercial seed stocks. Finally, the individual analysis of 12 seeds per variety showed some hetereogenity at the electrophoretic pattern for some of the analyzed varieties; this could be explained as a true case of heterozigocity, or could be the result of mixtures produced during the mechanical handling of the grains.

Keywords: A-PAGE protein electrophoresis gliadin wheat Triticum aestivum L. Triticum durum.
1 Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina (INIA), Casilla 439, Correo 3, Santiago, Chile.