Evaluation of erosion, sedimentation and water use in a fruit orchard

José Maria Peralta A.1, Raúl Ferreyra E.1 y Raúl Eguiluz C.1

During 1989/90 and 1990/91 summer seasons erosion produced by irrigation water was measured, farm watering efficiency was settled, and night dam effectiveness in retaining particles carried by irrigation water was determined. This was done in a farm located in the central area of Chile, irrigated by furrows, and focused on fruits crops, of 52 ha. It was found a greater number of particles (29.4 ton/ha/year) loss in the irrigation waterthat those loss through run off (9.6 ton/ha/year); furthermore it was settled that the main incoming element through water was the clay size (26 ton/ha/year), which is supposed to seal soil making infiltration difficult. In relation to night dam it was found that it retains 93% of silt and sand size and only a 16% of clay size of the total of solid carried by irrigation water. In relation to water usage, the average efficiency was 36%, with a minimun of 23% and a maximun of 62%.

Keywords: erosion, irrigation, water use, soil particles, field dam.
1 Estación Experimental La Platina (INIA), Casilla 439, Correo 3, Santiago.