Chemical and biological evaluation of traditional and improved beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars

Isabel Zacarías H.1, Gabriel Bascur B.2, Ernesto Guzmán C.1 y Enrique Yáñez S.1

The evaluation of the chemical composition and biological value of several bean cultivars grown in Chile was the aim of the current study. The bean samples analyzed were produced by the Food Legumes Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) corresponding to the following cultivars: Tórtola-Diana, Tórtola- INIA, Fleetwood, Negro Argel, Orfeo-INIA, Blanco-INIA, Pinto 114, Arroz 3 and Coscorrón Granado-INIA, including as controls Tórtola Corriente and Coscorrón Corriente cultivars. The rawand cooked materials were analyzed for their chemical composition according to the AOAC (1980) methods. Also the biological quality was measured as Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in the cooked sample. The mean chemical analysis values (g/100 g) were: moisture, 11.6; fat, 1.3; crude fiber, 4.3; protein (N x 6.25),20.7; ash, 3.6; carbohydrates (by difference), 58.6. In the rat study, weight gain and food intake of the animals showed statistical differences (P < 0.05) among the different cultivars. Only two samples (Negro Argel and Pinto 114) gave significantly different PER values, 1.67 ± 0.22 and 1.72 ± 0.23, respectively (P < 0.05). Arroz-3 cultivar presented the highest PER value (2.03 ± 0.30). The results compared to the standard casein diet were statistically different (P < 0.05). From previous results it is concluded that the protein content of the new beans cultivars is comparable to the traditional ones as well as its biological quality.

Keywords: Chemical composition, biologícal value, improved cultivars, beans.
1 Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA), Universidad de Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago, Chile.
2 Estación Experimental La Platina (INIA), Casilla 439, Correo 3, Santiago, Chile.